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APA, IEEE & AMA citation styles

These guides provide guidance on how to cite sources using APA, IEEE & AMA citation styles; including examples for print and electronic sources.

In-Text Citations

What is an in-text citation?

According to RefMe (n.d.), “an in-text citation is a reference made within the body of text of an academic essay. The in-text citation alerts the reader to a source that has informed your own writing”.

(Source: RefME. (n.d.). What Are In-Text Citations?. Retrieved November 20, 2016, from https://www.refme.com/us/bibliography-basics/what-is-a-citation/in-text/)

 

Citation Basics

  1. Follow the author-date method of in-text citations. For example, (Dessler, 2013).
  2. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

Quoting

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”).

Examples are:

  • According to (Dessler, 2013), “globalization refers to the tendency of firms to extend their sales, ownership, and/or manufacturing to new market abroad” (p.37).
  • Usually, “globalization refers to the tendency of firms to extend their sales, ownership, and/or manufacturing to new market abroad” (Dessler, 2010, p.37).

If the article you are directly quoting does not have page numbers, identify the number of the paragraph you are directly quoting.

For example:

  • Usually, “globalization refers to the tendency of firms to extend their sales, ownership, and/or manufacturing to new market abroad” (Dessler, 2010, para.1).

Paraphrasing

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.

Examples are:

  • According to (Dessler, 2013), sales expansion is one reason of companies expanding abroad.
  • Sales expansion is one reason of companies expanding abroad (Dessler, 2013).

Citing author/s

Author Citation Styles

Parenthetical Citation samples

One Author

(Donatelle, 2013)

2 Authors

            List both authors

(Kaufman & Schwitters, 2013)

3-6 Authors

            Cite all authors for the first time in text citation. If you cite that work again you only list the first author and “et al.”

(Barnett, Ziegler, & Byleen, 2011)

Subsequent citations:

(Barnett et al., 2011)

7 Author and more

            List the first author followed by “et. al.”

(Reynolds et al., 2010)

No Author

            Substitute the title for the author name

(Short title, 2010)

Group as Author

            List the complete group name for the first time in text citation. If you cite that work again, abbreviate the group author name.

(Canadian University Dubai [CUD], 2015)

Subsequent citations:

(CUD, 2015)

No date of publication

            Use “n.d.” if the date is not found.

(Robbins, n.d.)